Preparation for our DescentA ‘Nekyia’ – descent to the underworld – was never undertaken without due preparation and ours is no exception. In Greek or Roman times a map was probably not given, but it might help us to explore this site to have an overview of what is hidden behind the hill.
A quick assessment of the extent of the tunnel system buried deep within a volcanic crater wall at Baia might make one pause for thought. The scale of engineering, through solid rock, simply to provide steam for a very tiny set of baths at the surface is out of all proportion. A sledgehammer to crack a nut. Nevertheless, this effort was a feat of ancient engineering that is unequalled anywhere else that we know of.
To give some idea in human terms, the number of steps to the Dividing of the Ways is about 195 steps. From there to the underground water source is a about a further 72 steps. A total of 267 steps.
Pause for thought
If the tunnels were dug to provide steam for the Roman baths, how did they know the steam was there?
How could they navigate 170 metres (558.4 feet) through solid rock, with no false turns?
Why didn’t whoever dug into the steam source not die instantly, either drowned or scalded?
Why was it necessary to include over 550 oil lamp niches in the walls?
Why are there multiple doors near the heat source and who used them?
Why is there a ‘Sanctuary’ area with bricked up doorways?
Why the complex twin return tunnels from the ‘Sanctuary’?
Why is there a passage leading up to the ‘Sanctuary’ from the far end of the water course?
Why was the ‘Sanctuary’ laboriously closed off with brickwork and the tunnels filled with soil?
These and many other questions will be explored as we meet the features.
Where was Doc Paget right and where was he wrong? We are now able to make some judgements, based on better information and more detailed research. Doc Paget’s work, using only the dim battery torches available in his day, and film cameras with expensive single use flashbulbs.
At the Far End of the Great Antrum
Once we have travelled 124.5 metres (408.5 feet) down the Great Antrum, we will meet the complex features that we know exist down there.
Most of the names used are those that Doc Paget used in his publications. A few additional ones have been named by the team behind this website, such as Persephone’s Back Passage – a tribute to both Virgil’s Aeneid and Doc Paget’s earthy sense of humour.
Talking of earth, it is perplexing why there is so much soil in the deeper regions of the tunnels. We have explored the following possibilities:
- The tunnels provided a convenient dumping place for when the Serino Aqueduct was dug. The aqueduct crosses over the Great Antrum. The top tunnels are carved out of solid rock and there are no holes from above.
- A volcanic event caused a draught that blew the material in from outside. If you have ever tried to blow sand into a bottle, what will happen? Any material that was deposited in this way should show some grading of the material, heaviest pieces travelling a shorter distance than lighter ones.
- Inspection shows a jumble of heavier and lighter material, even in the farthest reaches. This suggests that it was brought in deliberately and placed there by human hand. If so, it was an enormous undertaking. Why do it?